The occurrence of groundwater in Ghana is associated with 3 main geological formations. These are the basement complex, comprising crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks; the consolidated sedimentary formations underlying the Volta basin (including the limestone horizon); and the mesozoic and cenozoic sedimentary rocks. The basement complex and the Voltain formation cover 54 percent and 45 percent of the country respectively. The remaining 1 percent consists of mesozoic and cenozoic sediments.
Groundwater occurrence in the basement complex is associated with the development of secondary porosity as a result of jointing, shearing, fracturing and weathering. The depths of aquifers are normally between 10 m and 60 m, and yields rarely exceed 6 m3/hr. In the mesozoic and cenozoic formations occurring in the extreme south eastern and western part of the country, the aquifer depths vary from 6 m to 120 m. There are also limestone aquifers, some of which are 120 m to 300 m in depth. The average yield in the limestone aquifers is as high as 180 m3/hr.
The quality of groundwater resources in Ghana is generally good except for some cases of localised pollution and areas with high levels of iron, fluoride and other minerals. Salinity in certain groundwater occurrences is also found especially in some coastal aquifers.